Friday, June 26, 2020

Solar Singlet Fission Technology Essay - 825 Words

Ideation Prosess: Solar Singlet Fission Technology (Essay Sample) Content: Solar Singlet Fission TechnologyStudent name:Instructor:Date:Solar energy regarded as one of the most reliable sources of energy. In the recent past, the development of technologies in solar energy harnessing sector has resulted in significant efficiency and benefits as far as energy and consumption are concerned. Singlet Fission is the most notable development that has revolutionized solar energy harvesting. Essentially, photovoltaic solar cells work in a similar way; a semiconducting material (mostly silicon) is sandwiched between a pair of electrodes. When photons (light) hit the semiconductor, a free electron is created. According to (Greyson,2007), the Shockley-Queisser limit states "A single photon can only create a singlet (single) exciton, with any extra energy dissipated as heat resulting in a max efficiency of 33%.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Four Chemistry scientists at the University of California discovered how to turn a single photon into more than one exciton through a process they named singlet fission. Theoretically, doubling the number of excitons results to up to 60% from 33%. There is still a lot of research currently on organic cells hence this technology is yet to mature. Solar cells energy is pushing towards 50%+ efficiency, this mark will render solar power more palatable as far as economics is concerned. The deployment of this technology is projected to cause economic shift in the energy sector.Economic effectsPower generation from solar and other renewable sources rather than fossil fuels has significant health benefits. Coal and natural gas plantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ emission accounts for a large percentage of air and water pollution, (Casper, 2010). This pollution has led to breathing problems, heart attacks, cancer and neurological damage. Embracing solar energy is found to reduce premature mortality as well consequently reducing health costs. Essentially, solar energy doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬t require water to operate, therefore, the processes do not pollute water sources or strain water supply by competing important sectors like agriculture.Comparing solar technology and fossil fuel technologies (more mechanized and capital intensive), the solar industry creates more jobs. For instance in the United States, renewable technologies including solar harvesting have directly employed more people in various sectors; project development, installation, operation and maintenance, financial and consultation services among others. Apart from job creation, local governments collect taxes from project owners and this can be channeled to important public projects and services especially in the rural communities. Solar energy provides more affordable power compared to fossil fuel electricity. Its implementation can play a key role in the stabilization of energy prices across the globe.Apart from initial the cost of installation, solar panels do not have any other costs. It implies that once the project is implemented, the company, instit ution or individual will not incur any other expenses as opposed to other energy sources, (Boxwell, 2012). Financially, this is a significant advantage. In any country, there are remote areas that can be difficult to get non-renewable power infrastructure there. There areas include islands, mountains and forests. Solar power is certainly the solution. Use of solar in such areas can help run industries among other development projects that require power to operate. Consequently, medical and educational facilities can be developed in these areas to help bring basic and essential services to citizens leaving there.Statistics shows that the cost of fuel is ever increasing consequently increasing power costs. This is a major issue in most developing and under-developed countries. The governments in these countries find it quite costly to distribute power to all parts of the countries. It makes it hard for businesses that require power to operate hence affecting development negatively. Em ployment opportunities are also limited further defining the devastating condition of most people. Initiating solar energy in these countries can certainly be vital in growth and development of the nation as well as the people.Today, manufacturing and control of energy is in the hands of capitalists, increasing exploitation of masses. Energy and power are considered the most powerful weapon that capitalists have. Introduction and use of solar power are projected to shift this power since communities and smaller groups can cease reliance on the power grid.Alternative perspectivesThere are other forms...

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Death Penalty Pros Cons - 2512 Words

Top 10 Pros and Cons Should the death penalty be allowed? The PRO and CON statements below give a five minute introduction to the death penalty debate. (Read more information about our one star to five star Theoretical Credibility System) 1. Morality 2. Constitutionality 3. Deterrence 4. Retribution 5. Irrevocable Mistakes 6. Cost of Death vs. Life in Prison 7. Race 8. Income Level 9. Attorney Quality 10. Physicians at Execution PRO Death Penalty CON Death Penalty 1. Morality PRO: The crimes of rape, torture, treason, kidnapping, murder, larceny, and perjury pivot on a moral code that escapes apodictic [indisputably true] proof by expert testimony or otherwise. But communities would plunge into anarchy if they could not†¦show more content†¦Therefore, a life sentence must be less deterrent than a death sentence. And we must execute murderers as long as it is merely possible that their execution protects citizens from future murder. CON: [T]here is no credible evidence that the death penalty deters crime more effectively than long terms of imprisonment. States that have death penalty laws do not have lower crime rates or murder rates than states without such laws. And states that have abolished capital punishment show no significant changes in either crime or murder rates. The death penalty has no deterrent effect. Claims that each execution deters a certain number of murders have been thoroughly discredited by social science research. 4. Retribution PRO: Society is justly ordered when each person receives what is due to him. Crime disturbs this just order, for the criminal takes from people their lives, peace, liberties, and worldly goods in order to give himself undeserved benefits. Deserved punishment protects society morally by restoring this just order, making the wrongdoer pay a price equivalent to the harm he has done. This is retribution, not to be confused with revenge, which is guided by a different motive. In retribution the spur is the virtue of indignation, which answers injury with injury for public good... Retribution is the primary purpose of just punishment as such... [R]ehabilitation, protection, and deterrenceShow MoreRelatedPros And Cons Of The Death Penalty789 Words   |  4 Pages Death Penalty The death penalty has been a debated topic for decades. Many people believe that it serves justice to the person being executed, while others think that it does no good for either party. However, I believe the three most outstanding topics surround the death penalty are the cost of death vs. life in prison, attorney quality, and irrevocable mistakes. The first topic surrounding the death penalty is the cost of death vs. life in prison. This is a bigRead MoreDeath Penalty Pros and Cons1636 Words   |  7 Pages Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty The death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. The death penalties are usually carried out for retribution of a heinous murder committed, such as aggravated murder, felony killing or contract killing. Every state handles what method they want to use to put a person to death according to their state laws. The death penalty is given by lethal injection, electrocution; gas chamber firing squad and hanging areRead MoreDeath Penalty Pros And Cons1501 Words   |  7 Pagesthe death penalty. What laws have the Supreme Court recognized that warrant the death penalty as being cruel and unusual punishment. What are the pros and cons of the death penalty, death penalty vs. life incarceration from a financial standpoint, the death penalty is it a deterrent where crime is concerned, states that have the death penalty, the state with the highest number of death row inmates the state with the lowest, mentally ill and mental retardation, juveni les, women and the death penaltyRead MorePros And Cons Of The Death Penalty1435 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The Death Penalty (DP), being also known as capital punishment, capital offence and corporal punishment, is a sentence of death imposed on a convicted criminal (1); this essay will use all the terms interchangeably. The DP breaches two fundamental human rights, namely the right to life and the right to live free from torture; both rights are protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) adopted by the United Nations in 1948, which contains a list of each human rightsRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty915 Words   |  4 PagesThe Death Penalty is the punishment of execution to someone who legally by court of law convicted a capital crime. In the United States of America this is mainly used for aggravated murder. Additionally this means that the murder has circumstances that are severe. For instance it was planned murder, intentionally killed below the age of 13, killed someone while serving term in prison, killed a law officer, and killed someone or ill egally terminated a person’s pregnancy while in the process of committingRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty1331 Words   |  6 PagesThe death penalty has always been an issue or debate in the United States, typically being asked if it should be illegal or not. As of right now there are thirty-one states, including Ohio in which I live, that still use the death penalty as it is illegal in the rest. There are many supporters of it, there is also a huge amount of opposition. There are things included in both sides that can make the argument harder to be one-sided but I believe that the death penalty should be legal throughout theRead MorePros And Cons Of The Death Penalty1348 Words   |  6 Pagesmost shocking, the death penalty. The death penalty, also referred to as capital punishment, was first introduced in the form of hanging hundreds of years ago when America was first established. Now, the most common way of execution proves to be death by lethal injection . For hundreds of years, people have argued over whether or not the general idea of capital punishment stands morally correct. Many have also debated if anyone holds the right to end another’s life. The death penalty, morally wrong andRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty844 Words   |  4 PagesThe death penalty takes the saying of â€Å"An eye for an eye† to a whole new level. From a very young age, everyone has been taught the undeniable truth that murder is wrong. So what makes capital punishment alright? Just because someone did something wrong, that doesn’t mean that person can legally be killed, as we are all human, and we all make mistakes. In the United States, 31 states allow this punishment (Sherman). Christopher Wilkins, Terry Darnell Edwards, and Rolando Ruiz are some of the manyRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty1939 Words   |  8 PagesThe death penalty is a serious problem that has the United States very divided. While th ere are many supporters of it, there is also a large amount of opposition. Currently, there are thirty three states where the death penalty is legal and seventeen states that have abolished it . I believe the death penalty should be legal throughout the nation. Crime is all around, Wherever we look we find criminals and crime. Criminals have become a part of peoples daily lives,Some criminals commit a crimeRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty948 Words   |  4 PagesDeath is something that a lot of people think about, but do people think about the Death Penalty? Having been given the death penalty means that someone is going to be put to death by a lethal injection or an electric chair; There are more ways, but the injection and the electric chair are the most used. There are many different opinions surrounding the idea of death penalties; which some people think the death penalty should be used more and some believe the complete opposite. There are two main

Monday, May 18, 2020

Pros and Cons of Homeschooling for Military Families

With military families changing duty stations an average of six to nine times over a 20-year career, homeschooling has a distinct appeal. Ensuring that military kids get a high-quality education can be challenging. It’s no secret that states may have discrepancies in educational requirements (though Common Core serves to narrow these gaps) and this can lead to gaps or repetition in a child’s education. While there are programs in place to help children keep consistency in their academic journey, there are no guarantees. As a result, some military families end up thinking about whether part-time or full-time homeschooling might provide a workable solution.   Parents considering making the switch to homeschooling should consider the pros and cons of this form of education before leaving traditional schooling behind. Homeschooling Benefits Homeschooling allows children to follow an individualized learning plan. Whether you decide to use a correspondence program or complete your own lesson plans, you can work at a pace that fits your child’s unique learning style. And if your children have different approaches and strengths in school, you can use different curriculum providers for different members of the family. Homeschooling also provides flexibility for families. If youre facing a military move in the middle of the school year, no problem! You decide when â€Å"summer† vacation occurs. You can give your child three one-month breaks throughout the year, a standard three-month summer, or whatever works for your family. To keep the kids on track, give them a book list to read on your travels, and let them prepare a presentation on their favorite. With homeschooling, the curriculum progresses consistently at your child’s unique learning rate, no matter where you are. From Germany to Lewis-McCord, you’re covered on every base! This is a huge benefit for military families. Many home teaching and correspondence programs have online options that allow you to connect to top-tier teaching facilities. Homeschooling Challenges One of the great things about school is the social interactions they allow children to have with peers. Homeschooling a child limits these interactions, but, fortunately, many military bases have activities and camps that allow kids to connect with one another. You can also get involved with a local place of worship or community recreation facility to find opportunities for children to get out of the house and meet new friends. You may also be able to get together with other homeschooling families, which will give the kids an opportunity to socialize or work on team projects. Parents who homeschool also face the challenge of deciding whether theyre equipped to teach their children a variety of subjects. Many people struggle in at least one subject area, and some states have determined that parents should be qualified to teach their children. As a result, they have implemented homeschool parent qualification requirements. Make sure you meet these requirements before you start down the homeschool path. If you struggle in a certain area, a correspondence or distance learning program might make more sense for that subject. If several subjects are difficult for you, homeschooling may not be a good fit for your family at all. It’s all about knowing your own limits and doing what’s best for your children. That said, if there are other homeschooling families nearby, you may be able to rely on other parents’ strengths in areas where you’re a little weaker, and vice versa. Keep in mind that should you be reassigned to a different city, youll likely lose access to these parents. Finally, homeschooling your children may mean they miss out on college scholarships from participating in sports or other extracurricular activities. However, changing duty stations in the middle of high school might have the same effect. To help your teens qualify for college scholarships, you may want to consider enrolling them in community college courses and programs that will demonstrate their initiative and academic ability instead.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Factors Affecting Exchange Rates Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1791 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Exchange rates play a vital role in a countrys level of trade, which is critical to every free market economy in the world. One very basic definition of exchange rates is the rates at which one unit of a countrys currency can be exchanged into another one. As such, the observation of exchange rates is crucial and its one of the most watched, analysed and fluctuate economic variables. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Factors Affecting Exchange Rates Finance Essay" essay for you Create order But exchange rates do matter on a smaller scale as well: they impact the real return of an investors portfolio. Exchange rates for countries which operate under a flexible exchange rates system are determined through the foreign exchange rates also known as the FOREX. The forex market is believed to be the largest, most efficient and liquid financial markets. The forex market regroups international players through a network of computers that connect participants from across the globe. 2.1.1 Factors affecting exchange rates Exchange rates vary within second, like any commodity, the mechanism of exchange rates operates through factor of demand and supply. It is essential to know the main factors that cause these instant movements in exchange rates are: Interest rate and Inflation It is important to note that exchange rates, interest rates and inflation are three highly correlated factors. The manipulation of interest rates by Central Bank of its benchmark rates is reflected in the retail interest rates, that is, the price charged by banks or other financial institution in the business of lending money. Higher interest rates would boost up foreign investment by attracting investors seek higher return on investment. This will increase the demand for the domestic currency. Furthermore, if a country is underperforming, a measure to boost up consumption is by Central Bank to lower the interest rates thus making borrowing cheaper. https://fxtrade.oanda.com/learn/top-5-factors-that-affect-exchange -rates https://www.barclayswealth.com/international/foreign-exchange/currency-rates.htm# https://www.forexbite.com/trading-courses/fundamental/factors-that-affect-exchange-rate https://www.starfishfx.com/learn-forex-lesson-6 https://www.trading-point.com/foreign-exchange-prices https://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/04/050704.asp#axzz2JBtSIgnn 2.2 Stock Market Index Stock Index or Stock market index is a way of measuring or tracking the value of a section of a stock market. In general, the computation of stock indices is done by combining the prices of selected stock (weighted average). Indices can be calculated using two different methodologies: Price- weighted index: whereby only the price of the stock is used to calculate the value of the index. Dow Jones is an example of such index. Market-weighted index: use the market capitalization of companies for calculating the value of the index. It is the most broadly-used indexes today, such as SP 500 and Hang-Seng indices. Stock Index is an important tool for investors or financial managers to make investment decision, for forecasting and assessing their returns on investment. Most widely followed stock indexes are from the US market, the SP 500, Nasdaq and the Dow Jones. Other significant international stock markets indexes are Nikkei 225 (Japan),  FTSE  100 (UK) and Hang Seng (Hong Kong). 2.3 Theoretical Review There exist no theoretical consensus on the existence or the direction of any relationship between stock prices and exchange rates. But instead, classical economic theory hypothesis discuss the linkage between stock prices and exchange rates trough two models: flow oriented model (Dornbusch and Fischer, 1980 and Gavin, 1989) and the stock-oriented model (Branson, 1983 and Frankel, 1983). The flow oriented model assumes that important determinants of exchange rates are through a countrys current account and balance of trade performance. Under this model, it is assumed that exchange rate affects the valuation of a firm through its competitiveness since it affects the cost of capital borrowed from overseas and also earnings made in foreign currencies. This in-turn influences real economic variables such as real income and output subsequently affects the current and future cash flows of companies and thus their stock prices. This goes in line with what had been discussed by Dornbusc her and Fischer which states that stock prices is defined as discounted present value of a firms expected future cash flows; thereby any events affecting a firms cash flow will be projected in the firms stock prices.  [1] As for the stock oriented models, as opposed to flow oriented model, stipulate that changes in stock prices cause changes in exchange rates through the use of financial account (capital account) transactions. Two distinct models can help in explaining the stock oriented model: the portfolio balance model and the monetary model. Under the portfolio model, it is assumed the investors diversified their portfolio as a measure of minimising risk by holding both domestic and foreign assets. As such, if prices of local assets increase, this will leads to an appreciation of the domestic currency. For instance, a rise (following a boom in the market) in the domestic assets prices will cause investors to demand more of local asset and subsequently selling foreign assets . This will lead to an increase in demand of local currency while increasing the supply of foreign currency causing a shift in the demand and supply of currencies which thereby induce an appreciation of the local currency. Another way of viewing this appreciation of the domestic currency following an increase in stock price; this will lead to an increase domestic wealth and hence demand for money, which in-turn raises the domestic interest rates. With higher interest rate, the domestic market is able to attract foreign capital, leading to an appreciation of the domestic currency. Thus, this establishes a positive causality linkage running from stock prices to exchange rates. The monetary model view exchange rates as being determine as a relative asset prices  [2]  , it assume that the current exchange rates reflects future expected exchange rates, which are affected by other factors than that of stock prices. Therefore under this model, stock prices and exchange rates should not show any linkage.  [3] The relationship between stock prices and exchange rates can be examined in the case of an import-dominant country and export-dominant country. Ma and Kao (1990) (missing) 2.4 Empirical Review During the past three decades, a large number of empirical studies tried to examine existence and direction of causality between Exchange Rates and Stock prices, using data of different stock indices as well as different time horizon. One of the earliest attempts in examining the nexus between exchange rates and stock prices was by Franck and Young (1972) who conclude that there was no significant interaction between the variables. Furthermore, studies at that time focuses on US market only and one of the most predominant studies was by Aggarwal (1981) which depicts the link between exchange rates and stock prices by analysing the correlation between the changes in the US trade-weighted exchange rates and changes in US stock markets indices using monthly data for the period 1974 to 1978. The study indicates a positive correlation during the period leading Aggarwal to conclude that the variables interacted in a manner consistent with the flow-model. In contrast, Soenen and Heniga r (1988) reported strong negative interaction using monthly data of the U.S. dollar effective exchange rate and U.S. stock market index for the period 1980 to 1986. One study which provides a foundation for further studies was by Ma and Kao (1990), whereby they test the degree of stock prices reaction to exchange rates changes in different countries. The differences among countries were explained by the nature of their economies, specifically by the extent to which the economy depends on exports and imports. As per their research, an appreciating currency negatively affects the domestic stock market for a country with larger export sector and positively affects the domestic stock market for an import-dominant country. Earlier studies relating to the issue used mainly statistical techniques such as simple regression and correlation to establish any relationship between stock prices and exchange rates. These studies suffer from a serious limitation as they omit to recognize the fact that most financial variables are non-stationary. Since early nineties, researches started using advance econometrics tools to find a relationship between the variables and their assorted results. Bahmani-Oskooee and Sohrabian (1992) was the first to employ causality tests in the examination of any linkage between stock prices and exchange rates. They used co-integration to investigate the relationship between monthly data on SP 500 index and US dollar effective exchange rate for the period 1973-1988. They showed bi-directional causality, at least in the short run. Their results affirm both stock-model and flow-model. As Ajayi and Mougoue (1996) search the relationship between exchange rates and stock indices for eight advanced economies using daily data from 1985 to 1991. According to results of study, there are significant short-run and long-run feedback relations between these two financial markets. An increase in stock price has a negative short-run effect as well as a positive long-run effect on domestic currency value. Also, currency depreciation has a negative both short-run and long-run effect on the stock market. Ajayi et al. (1998) take daily market indexes and exchange rates to investigate causal relations between stock returns and changes in exchange rates for seven advanced markets from 1985 to 1991 and eight Asian emerging markets from 1987 to 1991. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality between the stock and currency markets in all the advanced economies while no consistent causal relations exist in the emerging economies. They explained the different results between advanced and emerging economies with the differences in the structure and characteristics of financial markets between these groups. Staverek (2005) investigated the causality between effective exchange rates and stock prices for eight EU countries and the USA. He employed vector error correction modelling, co-integration analysis and th e standard Granger causality test. The results appear to be unidirectional and causality runs from stock prices to exchange rates, the causal relations for the period 1993-2003 were stronger than in 1970-1992. Additionally for old EU countries (Austria, France, Germany, UK) and for USA the causality was stronger than for new EU countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia). Richards et al. (2009) depicts the interaction between stock prices and exchange rates in an Australian context. Their results were in consistent with the portfolio balance model, Granger causality runs from stock prices to the exchange rates. Very few researchers actually analyse the dynamics relationship between Stock prices and Exchange rates in Africa. Adjasi et al. (2011) is among the few to investigate the relationship between these variables in seven African countries. The analysis was made for the period 1992 to 2005 by using vector autoregressive (VAR) cointegration and impulse response ana lysis to determine the long- and short-run linkages between stock prices and exchange rates. Their findings were, whether in short run or long run, cointegration was found for Tunisia, where exchange rate depreciation drives stock prices down. Furthermore, Shocks induced by either stock prices or the exchange rate are more protracted in Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius and Nigeria than in South Africa and Egypt.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ideal Style And Application Methods Of Leadership Essay

Change Management within this Organization Leadership is; expected, valued, respected and rewarded within this organization. This trait is specially selected for, and then systematically developed and honed at all levels, and at all positions within the organization. The ideal style and application methods of such leadership within this organization has evolved over the years. And, the organization now places a high premium on those individuals who can not only lead, but that can then readily follow as the situation dictates, who can compete and then later cooperate, and those who can best transition their applied leadership and management style; to best fit the situation and circumstances at hand, ensuring optimal results while inspiring excellence in performance. Rather than those who, for example, simply default to an autocratic and dictatorial leadership style. Autocratic and dictatorial leadership styles were the norm for western armies as recent as World War I. 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Rockaway pipeline Free Essays

I do not support radon gas because of its harmful effects that can affect everyone around or using the gas. Radon is second leading cause of lung cancer, the primary adverse health effect associated with chronic exposure to radon is lung cancer typically bronchogenic, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma. Radon also has the potential to generate genotoxic effects higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations. We will write a custom essay sample on Rockaway pipeline or any similar topic only for you Order Now Radon has been linked with erotogenic effects. Radon and smoking displayed a synergistic effect. Increased levels of exposure to radon increase the probability of observing an effect; however, increased levels of exposure do not necessarily influence the type or severity of the effect. There are no zero risk thresholds for radon exposure, but instead, risk increases proportionate to the exposure time. Pipelines can explode at any time for many different reasons, and those reasons can be the cause of why shopping malls, ouses, and schools could be the victims of a fatal fire after the pipelines explode. You state that the pipelines would have periodic checks and be monitored 24 hours a day, every year, but tell that to the campers of Floyd Benet Park, the trees there are prone to fire, and I sincerely doubt that you wish to spend all your profits fixing on the reparation needed to replenish all the trees. Radon decays to equally radioactive and dangerous particles, like polonium and radioactive lead, In addition, before being broken down to regular, non-radioactive lead. When people breathe in, radon is exhaled, but the radon particles ends up inside the lungs, which then will cause cancer. Only because the radon is a heavy, gas and usually gravitates towards the open floor, making in harmful for children, pets and adults The Radon particles and the progeny can plate out the sides ot gas pipelines, which makes the pipelines hot and radioactive, then making them hazardous. I recently found out that in 1986, EPA had set a limit for exposure to radon in air at 4 picocuries per liter. Being that there is increased exposure to many inds of radiation in the world today. Universities and Organizations like John Hopkins Universities and the World Health Organization have said that 2. 7 picocuries per liter would be a much better standard, but in reality, there is really know safe level of exposure. To Whom is reading this Letter I sincerely hope you take account all of the facts and examples that I have written and explained to you this day, and I hope the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission understands the dangers or this gas and how it can affect our community, How to cite Rockaway pipeline, Papers

Sentencing Paper free essay sample

Paper Deadrian Williams CJS/ 200 3/3/2013 Bryan Maglicco Six Forms of Punishment Fines are one of the oldest forms of punishment, the use of fines as criminal sanctions suffers from built in inequities and a widespread failure to collect them (Schmalleger, 2011). Fines can deprive offenders of the proceeds of criminal activity, and also promote rehabilitation by enforcing economic responsibility (Schmalleger, 2011). People have to pay fines when they break minor laws, such as driving while intoxicated, reckless driving, disturbing the peace, public drunkenness, and vandalism (Schmalleger, 2011). Capital punishment is the death penalty. Capital punishment is the most extreme of all sentencing options (Schmalleger, 2011). Capital punishment is sentenced when someone comments a capital offense. In 2008, for example, a twenty eight year old man was sentenced to death in the atrocious murder of a ten year old girl in what authorities said was an elaborate plan to cannibalize the girls flesh (Schmalleger, 2011). Today, the federal government and 35 of the 50 states permit execution for first degree murder, kidnapping, aggravated rape, the murder of a police or corrections officer, or murder while under a life sentence (Schmalleger, 2011). We will write a custom essay sample on Sentencing Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Probation is another form of punishment. Probation means testing the behavior or abilities. In a legal sense, an offender on probation is ordered to follow certain conditions set forth by the court, often under the supervision of a probation officer (Wikipedia, 2013). Offenders are ordinarily required to refrain from firearms, and may be ordered to remain employed, have a curfew, live in a decent place and not leave the jurisdiction (Wikipedia, 2013). Incarceration is another form of punishment. Jails are shorter lock up centers ran by counties and operated by sheriffs (Cliffnotes. com Types of Sentences, 2013). Usually inmates that are in jail are waiting to go to trial who were unable to make bail, people with misdemeanors, and felons who violated probation (Cliffnotes. com Types of Sentences, 2013). Also people re incarcerated in prisons who are convicted felons. Prisons are operated by the state (Cliffnotes. com Types of Sentences, 2013). Community service is another form of punishment. Community service is paying your debt back to society for the wrong doings that a person does, by doing work that benefits the community (Cliffnotes. com Types of Sentences, 2013). People doing community service clean up highways, cut grass, plant trees and flo wers, and wash away graffiti. People who are punished with community service have a certain amount of hours they must do to complete the community service order. Failure to complete community service can lead to possibly jail time and more fines. Reducing recidivism Recommendations on how to modify the sentencing process would be to look at the record of the defendant and also the severity of the crime when sentencing. If someone has committed a murder or a rape, or kidnapping then they should get the severest sentence possible even if it is their first time because those crimes are against people. Families have been destroyed because of what the person did. Good behavior should not play in the sentencing of these offenders. They did not think about the victims when they committed the crime so the courts should not give them a break because of good behavior. If the sentencing process was stricter and focused more on the offender punishment and not what other people would say and feel about the crime then it would be a lot less crimes. References Cliffnotes. com Types of Sentences. (2013, March 4). Retrieved from Cliffnotes. com: http://m. cliffnotes. com Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminal Justice Today. Prentice Hall. Wikipedia, (2013).